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Kamis, 03 Maret 2011

Sejarah Eric Berne, Pendiri Analisis Transaksional

Eric Berne menulis delapan buku besar dalam hidupnya:
  • The Mind in Action (1947); The Mind dalam Aksi (1947);
  • A Layman's Guide to Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis (1957); A Layman's Guide untuk Psychiatry dan Psikoanalisis (1957);
  • Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy (1961); Analisis Transaksional dalam Psikoterapi (1961);
  • Structure and Dynamics of Organizations and Groups (1963); Struktur dan Dinamika Organisasi dan Kelompok (1963);
  • Games People Play (1964); Games People Play (1964);
  • Principles Group Treatment (1966); Prinsip Pengobatan Group (1966);
  • Sex in Human Loving (1970); and Seks di Loving Manusia (1970); dan
  • What Do You Say After You Say Hello (1971). Apa yang Anda Katakan Setelah Anda Say Hello (1971).
For a biography of Eric Berne, read Eric Berne, Master Gamesman by Elizabeth Watkins Jorgensen and Henry Irvin Jorgensen Grove Press 1984. Untuk biografi Eric Berne, membaca Eric Berne, Master Gamesman oleh Elizabeth Watkins Jorgensen dan Henry Irvin Jorgensen Grove Press 1984. Available used through Amazon.com. Tersedia digunakan melalui Amazon.com.
Eric Berne, 1910 - 1970
Eric Berne Eric Berne
1910 - 1970 1910 - 1970
In addition, two anthologies of his work have been published: Selain itu, dua antologi dari karyanya telah diterbitkan:
  • Beyond games and Scripts (1976) and Beyond permainan dan Script (1976) dan
  • Intuition and Ego States (1977). Intuisi dan Amerika Ego (1977).
Click here for key ideas of Transactional Analysis. Klik di sini untuk ide-ide kunci Analisis Transaksional.
Click here for a bibliography of Eric Berne's publications. Klik di sini untuk bibliografi Berne Publikasi Eric.
Eric Berne was born May 10, 1910 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, as Leonard Bernstein, the son of David Hiller Bernstein, MD, a general practitioner, and Sarah Gordon Bernstein, a professional writer and editor. Eric Berne lahir 10 Mei 1910 di Montreal, Quebec, Kanada, seperti Leonard Bernstein, anak Daud Hiller Bernstein, MD, seorang dokter umum, dan Sarah Gordon Bernstein, seorang penulis profesional dan editor. His only sibling, his sister Grace, was born five years later. hanya saudara-Nya, ia Grace adik, lahir lima tahun kemudian. The family immigrated to Canada from Poland and Russia. Keluarga berimigrasi ke Kanada dari Polandia dan Rusia. Both parents graduated from McGill University, and Eric, who was close to his father, spoke fondly of how he accompanied his father, a physician, on medical rounds. Kedua orang tua lulus dari McGill University, dan Eric, yang dekat dengan ayahnya, sayang berbicara tentang bagaimana dia menemani ayahnya, seorang dokter, pada putaran medis. Dr. Bernstein died of tuberculosis at age 38. Dr Bernstein meninggal karena tuberkulosis pada usia 38. Mrs. Bernstein then supported herself and her two children working as an editor and writer. Mrs Bernstein kemudian didukung dirinya dan dua anak yang bekerja sebagai editor dan penulis. She encouraged Eric to follow in his father's footsteps and study medicine. Dia mendorong Eric untuk mengikuti jejak ayahnya dan obat-obatan belajar. He received an MD and CM (Master of Surgery) from McGill University Medical School in 1935. Dia menerima MD dan CM (Master Bedah) dari McGill University Medical School pada tahun 1935.


Pre-War Years Pra-Perang Tahun

Berne interned in the United States at Englewood Hospital in New Jersey. Berne ditahan di Amerika Serikat di Englewood Hospital di New Jersey. In 1936 he began his psychiatric residency at the Psychiatric Clinic of Yale University School of Medicine, where he worked for two years. Pada tahun 1936 ia mulai residensi psikiatri di Klinik Psikiatri dari Yale University School of Medicine, di mana dia bekerja selama dua tahun. Some time around 1938-39, Berne became an American citizen and shortened his name from Eric Lennard Bernstein to Eric Berne. Beberapa waktu sekitar 1938-1939, Berne menjadi warga negara Amerika dan dipersingkat namanya dari Eric Lennard Bernstein untuk Eric Berne. His first appointment was as Clinical Assistant in Psychiatry at Mt. pengangkatan pertamanya adalah sebagai Asisten Klinis di Psychiatry di Mt. Zion Hospital, New York City, a post he held until 1943 when he went into the Army Medical Corps. Sion Hospital, New York City, sebuah jabatan yang dipegangnya sampai 1943 ketika ia pergi ke Army Medical Corps. In 1940 Berne had established a private practice in Norwalk, Connecticut. Berne pada tahun 1940 telah membentuk praktik swasta di Norwalk, Connecticut. There he met and married his first wife, Elinor, with whom he had two children, Ellen and David. Di sana ia bertemu dan menikah dengan istri pertamanya, Elinor, dengan siapa ia memiliki dua orang anak, Ellen dan David. From 1940-1943 he also commuted from his Westport home to practice concurrently in New York City. Dari 1940-1943 ia juga pergi dari rumah Westport untuk berlatih secara bersamaan di New York City. In 1941 he began training as a psychoanalyst at the New York Psychoanalytic Institute and became an analysand of Paul Federn. Pada tahun 1941 ia mulai latihan sebagai psikoanalis di New York psikoanalitik Institute dan menjadi analysand Paulus Federn.

Army Medical Corps Army Medical Corps

Because of the demand for army psychiatrists during World War II, Dr. Berne served from 1943-46 in the AUS Medical Corps, rising from first lieutenant to major. Karena permintaan psikiater militer selama Perang Dunia II, Dr Berne dilayani 1943-46 di AUS Medical Corps, naik dari letnan satu ke besar. His assignments included Spokane, Washington, Ft. tugas nya termasuk Spokane, Washington, Ft. Ord, California and Bingham City, Utah. Ord, California dan Bingham City, Utah. During the latter two years he practiced group therapy in the psychiatric wards of Bushnell General Hospital. Selama dua tahun terakhir dia berlatih terapi kelompok di bangsal psikiatrik Bushnell Rumah Sakit Umum. When discharged from the army in 1946, Berne, now divorced, decided to relocate in Carmel, California, an area he had fallen in love with when stationed at nearby Fort Ord. Ketika dipecat dari tentara pada tahun 1946, Berne, sekarang bercerai, memutuskan untuk merelokasi di Carmel, California, sebuah daerah ia telah jatuh cinta dengan ketika ditempatkan di Fort Ord dekatnya. Before the year was out he completed writing The Mind in Action and signed a contract for its publication with Simon and Schuster of New York. Sebelum tahun ini keluar ia selesai menulis The Mind in Action dan menandatangani kontrak untuk publikasi dengan Simon dan Schuster dari New York. That same year he resumed his psychoanalytic training at the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute. Tahun yang sama ia kembali pelatihan psikoanalitik di San Francisco psikoanalitik Institute. In 1947 he became the analysand of Eric Erikson, with whom he worked for two years. Pada tahun 1947 ia menjadi analysand Eric Erikson, dengan siapa dia bekerja selama dua tahun.

Family Life in California Kehidupan Keluarga di California

Soon after beginning analysis with Erikson, Berne met a young divorcee, Dorothy de Mass Way, whom he wanted to marry. Segera setelah memulai analisis dengan Erikson, Berne bertemu dengan seorang janda muda, Dorothy de Misa Way, yang dia ingin menikah. Erikson said Eric could not marry until after finishing his didactic analysis, and so it was not until 1949 that Eric and Dorothy exchanged vows and set up home in Carmel. Erikson kata Eric tidak bisa menikah sampai setelah menyelesaikan analisis didaktik, dan sehingga tidak sampai tahun 1949 bahwa Eric dan Dorothy bertukar sumpah dan mendirikan rumah di Karmel. Dorothy brought three children to the marriage, and she and Eric eventually had two sons of their own, Ricky and Terry. Dorothy membawa tiga anak-anak untuk perkawinan, dan ia dan Eric akhirnya memiliki dua anak mereka sendiri, Ricky dan Terry. Eric loved the pater familias role, relishing in his large group of offspring and tending to be, if anything, overly permissive, a nurturing parent more often than an authoritarian one. Eric mencintai peran pater familias, menikmati dalam kelompok yang besar keturunan dan cenderung akan, jika ada, terlalu permisif, orangtua yang memelihara lebih sering daripada satu otoriter. However, he also knew how to make time for his writing. Namun, ia juga tahu bagaimana membuat waktu untuk menulis. He had an isolated study built at the far end of his large garden, well out of earshot of his youngsters. Dia memiliki studi terisolasi dibangun di ujung taman yang besar, baik di luar jangkauan pendengaran anak muda nya. In that study he did most of his writing between 1949 and 1964, when he and Dorothy divorced on the friendliest of terms. Dalam penelitian tersebut ia menulis sebagian besar di antara tahun 1949, dan 1964 ketika ia dan Dorothy bercerai pada istilah ramah. During these seminal years in Carmel, Eric kept up a demanding pace. Selama tahun-tahun mani di Karmel, Eric terus kecepatan yang menuntut. He took an appointment in 1950 as Assistant Psychiatrist at Mt. Ia mengambil janji pada tahun 1950 sebagai Asisten Psikiater di Mt. Zion Hospital, San Francisco, and simultaneously began serving as a Consultant to the Surgeon General of the US Army. Sion Hospital, San Francisco, dan sekaligus mulai melayani sebagai Konsultan kepada Surgeon General Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat. In 1951 he added the job of Adjunct and Attending Psychiatrist at the Veterans Administration and Mental Hygiene Clinic, San Francisco. Pada tahun 1951 ia menambahkan pekerjaan Ajun dan Menghadiri Psikiater di Administrasi Veteran dan Mental Higiene Klinik, San Francisco. These three appointments were in addition to his private practices in both Carmel and San Francisco. Ketiga janji tersebut di samping praktek pribadinya di kedua Karmel dan San Francisco.

Break with Psychoanalysis & the Creation of Transactional Analysis Break dengan Psikoanalisis & Penciptaan Analisis Transaksional

Probably the most significant traces of the origins of transactional analysis are contained in the first five of six articles on intuition Berne wrote beginning in 1949. Mungkin jejak-jejak yang paling signifikan dari asal-usul analisis transaksional yang terkandung dalam lima pertama dari enam artikel pada intuisi Berne menulis dimulai pada tahun 1949. Already, at that early date, when he was still working to gain the status of psychoanalyst, he dared to defy Freudian concepts of the unconscious in his writings. Sudah, pada tanggal awal, ketika ia masih bekerja untuk memperoleh status psikoanalis, ia berani menentang konsep Freudian tentang ketidaksadaran dalam tulisan-tulisannya. When he began training in 1941 at the New York Psychoanalytic Institute, and later when he resumed his training at the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute, Berne obviously believed that becoming a psychoanalyst was important. Ketika ia mulai pelatihan pada tahun 1941 di New York psikoanalitik Institute, dan kemudian, ketika ia kembali pelatihan di San Francisco psikoanalitik Institut, Berne jelas percaya bahwa menjadi psikoanalis itu penting. However, in the end that coveted title was withheld; his 1956 application for membership was turned down with the verdict that he wasn't ready, but, perhaps after three or four more years of personal analysis and training he might reapply. Namun, pada akhirnya bahwa judul didambakan itu dirahasiakan; 1956 aplikasi untuk keanggotaan ditolak dengan putusan bahwa ia belum siap, tapi, mungkin setelah tiga atau empat tahun lagi analisis pribadi dan pelatihan yang mungkin melamar lagi. For Eric the rejection was galvanizing, spurring him to intensify his long-standing ambition to add something new to psychoanalysis. Untuk Eric penolakan itu galvanizing, memacu dia untuk mengintensifkan ambisinya lama untuk menambahkan sesuatu yang baru untuk psikoanalisis. He set to work, determined to develop a new approach to psychotherapy by himself. Dia mulai bekerja, bertekad untuk mengembangkan pendekatan baru untuk psikoterapi sendiri. Before 1956 was out, he had written two seminal papers based on material read earlier that year at the Psychiatric Clinic, Mt. Sebelum 1956 sudah keluar, ia telah menulis dua makalah mani berdasarkan bahan membaca awal tahun di Klinik Psikiatri, Mt. Zion Hospital, San Francisco, and at the Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Clinic, UC Medical School: " Intuition V: The Ego Image ": and " Ego States in Psychotherapy ." Sion Hospital, San Francisco, dan pada Neuropsikiatrik Porter Klinik Langley, Sekolah Medis UC: "V Intuisi: The Image Ego": "dan Amerika Ego dalam Psikoterapi". Using references to P. Federn, E. Kann, and H. Silberer, in the first article Berne indicated how he arrived at the concept of ego states and where he got the idea of separating "adult" from "child." Menggunakan referensi untuk P. Federn, E. kann, dan H. Silberer, dalam artikel pertama Berne menunjukkan bagaimana ia tiba di konsep negara ego dan di mana ia mendapat ide memisahkan "dewasa" dari "anak." In the next article he developed the tripartite scheme used today (Parent, Adult, and Child), introduced the three-circle method of diagramming it, showed how to sketch contaminations, labeled the theory, "structural analysis" and termed it "a new psychotherapeutic approach." Dalam artikel berikutnya ia mengembangkan skema tripartit digunakan saat ini (Induk, Dewasa, dan Anak), memperkenalkan metode tiga-lingkaran diagram itu, menunjukkan bagaimana sketsa kontaminasi, berlabel teori, "analisis struktur" dan disebut itu "baru Pendekatan psikoterapi. " The third article, titled " Transactional Analysis: A New and Effective Method of Group Therapy ," was written a few months later and presented by invitation at the 1957 Western Regional Meeting of the American Group Psychotherapy Association of Los Angeles. Artikel ketiga, berjudul "Analisis Transactional: A dan Efektif Metode Baru Group Therapy," ditulis beberapa bulan kemudian dan disajikan oleh undangan pada 1957 Regional Barat Rapat American Psikoterapi Kelompok Asosiasi Los Angeles. With the publication of this paper in the 1958 issue of the American Journal of Psychotherapy, transactional analysis, the name of Berne's new method of diagnosis and treatment, became a permanent part of the psychotherapeutic literature. Dengan publikasi tulisan ini dalam edisi 1958 dari American Journal of Psikoterapi, analisis transaksional, nama metode baru Berne tentang diagnosis dan pengobatan, menjadi bagian permanen dari literatur psikoterapi. In addition to restating his concepts of PAC, structural analysis, and ego states, the 1957 paper added the important new features of games and scripts. Selain ulangan konsep nya PAC, analisis struktur, dan negara ego, kertas 1957 menambahkan fitur baru penting dari permainan dan skrip.

The Seminars The Seminar

From the beginning, Berne used his regular Thursday evening clinical seminars in Monterey as a testing ground for his new theory and methods. Sejak awal, Berne digunakan seminar reguler hari Kamis sore klinis di Monterey sebagai ajang pengujian teori baru dan metode. In 1950-51 he began a Tuesday evening seminar in San Francisco; this became incorporated in February 1958 as the San Francisco Social Psychiatry Seminars in order to handle funds required for the publication of the Transactional Analysis Bulletin, which first appeared in January 1962 with Berne as editor. Pada 1950-1951 ia mulai sebuah seminar Selasa malam di San Francisco, ini menjadi tergabung pada Februari 1958 di San Francisco Sosial Psikiatri Seminar dalam rangka menangani dana yang dibutuhkan untuk penerbitan Buletin Analisis Transaksional, yang pertama kali muncul pada bulan Januari 1962 dengan Berne sebagai editor. In 1964 Berne and his San Francisco and Monterey seminar colleagues decided to create a Transactional Analysis Association, naming it the International Transactional Analysis Association in recognition of the growing number of Transactional Analysis professionals outside the USA. Pada tahun 1964 Berne dan gelar San Francisco dan rekan seminar Monterey memutuskan untuk membuat sebuah Transaksional Analisis Asosiasi, penamaan itu International Association Analisis Transaksional sebagai pengakuan atas meningkatnya jumlah profesional Analisis Transaksional luar Amerika Serikat. The new organization was designated successor to the San Francisco Social Psychiatry Seminars, and the San Francisco seminar changed its name to the San Francisco Transactional Analysis Seminar in recognition of the fact that it was only one of the many branches of the ITAA. Organisasi baru ini ditunjuk penerus San Francisco Sosial Psychiatry Seminar, dan seminar San Francisco berubah nama menjadi San Francisco Seminar Analisis Transaksional sebagai pengakuan atas kenyataan bahwa itu hanya satu dari banyak cabang ITAA.

The Last Years The Last Tahun

The years from 1964 to 1970 were restless ones for Berne. Tahun-tahun 1964-1970 adalah orang gelisah untuk Berne. After his second divorce his personal life became chaotic as he longed to find another mate. Setelah perceraian kedua kehidupan pribadinya menjadi kacau karena ia ingin mencari pasangan lain. His frustration in this area led him to work longer hours at his writing, but when he did remarry Torre Peterson in 1967, he did not give up any of his increasingly complex writing commitments. frustrasi Nya di wilayah ini, mendorong dia untuk bekerja lagi jam di tulisannya, tetapi ketika ia menikah lagi Torre Peterson pada tahun 1967, ia tidak menyerah salah satu komitmen yang semakin kompleks tulisannya. By early 1970 he was once again divorced. Pada awal 1970 dia sekali lagi bercerai. In June, 1970, Berne suffered the first of two heart attacks. Pada bulan Juni 1970, Berne menderita pertama dari dua serangan jantung. A few weeks before the first heart attack, on May 10, his 60th birthday, Berne had told his friends how well he felt. Beberapa minggu sebelum serangan jantung pertama, pada tanggal 10 Mei, ulang tahun ke-60 nya, Berne telah memberitahu teman-temannya bagaimana ia merasa. He had just sent his manuscript of What do You Say After You Say Hello to Grove Press, and was pleased about how it had turned out. Dia baru saja mengirim naskah tentang Apa yang Anda Katakan Setelah You Say Hello untuk Grove Press, dan senang tentang bagaimana hal itu ternyata. He actually allowed himself some weekends of pure play, with no writing. Dia benar-benar membiarkan dirinya beberapa akhir pekan bermain murni, dengan tulisan no. However, on June 26, he suffered sharp pains that went through his chest and back which turned out to be caused by a heart attack. Namun, pada tanggal 26 Juni, ia menderita nyeri tajam yang menembus dada dan punggungnya yang ternyata disebabkan oleh serangan jantung. He was hospitalized and was making a slow recovery but three weeks later, while working on the galleys of What do You Say After You Say Hello in his hospital bed, he suffered another heart attack this time a massive one, which caused his death. Dia dirawat di rumah sakit dan membuat pemulihan yang lambat tapi tiga minggu kemudian, ketika bekerja pada kapal kerja paksa dari Apa yang Anda Katakan Setelah Anda Say Hello di ranjang rumah sakit, ia menderita serangan jantung saat ini satu besar, yang menyebabkan kematiannya. Eric died on July 15, 1970. Eric meninggal pada tanggal 15 Juli 1970. Eric Berne is buried at the El Carmelo Cemetery. in Pacific Grove, California Eric Berne dimakamkan di Taman Makam El Carmelo. di Pacific Grove, California